I've been taking the Udacity CS373 (Robotic Car) class, and this week the topic was Particle filters. Particle filters are basically a localization algorithm that accounts for error in measurements and sensors.
Anyway, part of the Particle Filter algorithm requires the generation of a new set of these things called "particles" based on the particles' weights. So to accomplish this task, the Resample Wheel algorithm was presented in class. It is a particularly elegant method of generating a new set of particles by randomly drawing from an old set of particles (with replacement). The particle weight determines the likelihood of it being picked.
Here is the algorithm (with print statements - I used these to help me understand how the algorithm works):
def generate_new_particles(old_particles, weights ...